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In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100. i.e., 5% = 5/100 = .05.

So, **x**% of **y** = **x**/100 × **y**

See the sample calculations to learn how to work out percentages.

**1.** What is 40% of 600?

**Ans.** Since 40% = ^{40}/_{100},

Therefore, 40% of 600 = ^{40}/_{100} × 600 = .4 × 600 = 240

**2.** What percent is 40 of 800?

**Ans.** Since we have to find the percentage, we write down the problem as:**x**% of 800 = 40

⇒ ^{x}/_{100} × 800 = 40

⇒ **x** × 800 = 40 × 100

⇒ **x** = ^{40 × 100} / _{800}

⇒ **x** = 5 or **x**% = 5%

**3.** 12 is 20% of what amount?

**Ans.** Writing the problem as a percentage equation, we have:

20% × **x** = 12

⇒ ^{20}/_{100} × **x** = 12

⇒ 20 × **x** = 12 × 100

⇒ **x** = ^{12 × 100}/_{20}

⇒ **x** = 60

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